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Jewish Americans are the most powerful and influential ethnic group in America.
Jewish Americans make up 2 percent of the U.
More than 55% of all Jewish Adults received a college degree and 25% earned a graduate degree.
More than 60% of all employed Jews are in one of the three highest status job categories: professional or technical 41%management and executive 13% and business and finance 7%.
Over 45% of large gifts made to charity are made by Jewish Americans.
Over 50% of Jewish Americans live in just four states: New York, New Jersey, Florida and California.
Iger CEO of the Walt Disney Company Philippe P.
Dauman CEO of Viacom Jeff Zucker CEO of NBC Universal David Westin President of ABC News Donald Graham CEO of the Washington Post Mortimer Zuckerman Editor-In-Chief of U.
Sulzberger Jr Publisher of The New York Times Mel Karmazin CEO of SIRIUS Satellite Radio Joanne Lipman Editor-In-chief of Condé Nast Portfolio Jann Wenner Publisher of Rolling Stone Magazine Source: Wikipedia Jewish Investment Bankers Richard S.
CEO of Lehman Brothers Lloyd C.
Blankfein CEO of Goldman Sachs Charles R.
Schwab Founder of the Charles Schwab Corporation Prof.
Stanley Fischer Governor of the Bank of Israel Bob Zoellick New Now President of the World Bank Ben Bernanke Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan D.
Schwartz CEO of Bear Stearns Bruce Wasserstein CEO of Lazard LLC Dr.
Josef Ackermann CEO of Deutsche Bank Jean Claude Trichet President of the European Central Bank James Dimon CEO of JPMorgan Chase Blake Grossman CEO of Barclays Global Investors Source: Wikipedia American Jews, also known as Jewish Americans, are American citizens of the or.
The Jewish community in the United States is composed predominantly of and their U.
Minority are also represented, including, and a number of converts.
The American Jewish community manifests a wide range ofas well as encompassing the.
Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States is home to the largest or second largest after Jewish community in the world.
The population of American religious adherents of Judaism was estimated to be approximately 5,128,000 or 1.
Main article: Jews have been present in what is today the United States of America as early as the 17th century.
However, they were small in numbers and almost exclusively immigrants of Spanish and ancestry.
While denied the ability list of all us states vote or hold office in some areas, Sephardic Jews became active in community affairs in the 1790s, after achieving political equality in the five states where they were most numerous.
Large scale Jewish immigration, however, did not commence until the 19th century, when, by mid-century, many had arrived fromimmigrating to the United States in large numbers due to antisemitic laws and restrictions at home.
There were approximately 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, and largely secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older families remained influential.
Jewish immigration to the United States increased dramatically in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution and economic difficulties in parts of Eastern Europe.
Most of these new immigrants were -speaking Ashkenazi Jews, though most came from the poor rural populations of the and thelocated in modern-day,and.
During the same period, great numbers of Ashkenazi Jews also arrived also fromat that time the most impoverished region of with heavy Jewish urban population, driven out mainly by economic reasons.
Many Jews also emigrated from due to antisemitic persecution.
American Jewish writers of the time urged and integration into the widerand Jews quickly became part of American life.
There, Jews became increasingly assimilated and demonstrated rising.
The suburbs facilitated the formation of new centers, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960; the fastest growth came in Reform and, especially, Conservative congregations.
More recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have largely joined the mainstream American Jewish community.
Self identity Korelitz 1996 shows how American Jews during the late 19th and early 20th centuries abandoned a racial definition of Jewishness in favor of one that embraced ethnicity.
During this time contributors to the Menorah promoted a cultural, rather than a racial, religious, or other view of Jewishness as a means to define Jews in a world that threatened to overwhelm and absorb Jewish uniqueness.
The journal represented the ideals of the menorah movement established by and others to promote a revival in Jewish cultural identity and combat the idea of race as a means to define or identify peoples.
I think that antisemitism has proven itself to be a powerful force in nearly every post of Western civilization where Christianity has a presence.
It only takes an event or two for a certain kind of anti-Jewish, antisemitic sensibility to surface in places that you would be surprised.
We finally—yeah—they said that in.
You said that in.
They tell us how Jews have survived being uprooted and transformed.
Many immigrant narratives bear a theme of the arbitrary nature of fate and the reduced state of immigrants in a new culture.
By contrast, ethnic family narratives tend to show the ethnic more in charge of his life, and perhaps in danger of losing his Jewishness altogether.
Some stories show how a family member successfully negotiated the conflict between ethnic and American identities.
After 1960 memories oftogether with the in 1967 that resulted in the survival of Israel had major impacts on fashioning Jewish ethnic identity.
The provided Jews with a rationale for their ethnic distinction at a time when other minorities were asserting their own.
Jews successfully established themselves in the garment trades and in the needle unions in New York.
By the 1930s they were a major political factor in New York, with strong support for the most liberal programs of the.
They continued as a major element of thegiving special support to the.
By the mid-1960s, however, the Black Power movement caused a growing separation between blacks and Jews, though both groups remained solidly in the Democratic camp.
While earlier Jewish immigrants from Germany tended to be politically conservative, the wave of Jews from Eastern Europe starting in the early 1880s, were generally more liberal or left wing and became the political majority.
Many came to America with experience in the socialist, and communist movements as well as theemanating from Eastern Europe.
Many Jews rose to leadership positions in the early 20th century and helped to found unions that played a major role in left wing politics and, after 1936, in politics.
Although American Jews generally leaned Republican in the second half of the 19th century, the majority has voted Democratic or leftist since at least 1916, when they voted 55% for.
American Jews voted 90% for Democrat in the elections of 1940, and 1944, representing the highest of support, only equaled once since.
In the election of 1948, Jewish support for Democrat dropped to 75%, with 15% supporting the new.
As a result of lobbying, and hoping to better compete for the Jewish vote, both major party platforms had included a pro-Zionist plank since 1944, and supported the creation of a Jewish state; it had little apparent effect however, with 90% still voting other-than Republican.
In every election since, no Democratic presidential candidate has won with less than 68% of the Jewish vote.
During the 1952 and 1956 elections, they voted 60% or more for Democratwhile garnered 40% for his reelection; the best showing to date for the Republicans since 43% in 1920.
In 1960, 83% voted for Democrat againstand in 1964, 90% of American Jews voted forover his Republican opponent, arch-conservative.
During the Nixon re-election campaign of 1972, Jewish voters were apprehensive about and only favored the Democrat by 65%, while Nixon more than doubled Republican Jewish support to 35%.
During the Reagan re-election campaign of 1984, the Republican retained 31% of the Jewish vote, while 67% voted for Democrat.
The 1988 election saw Jewish voters favor Democrat by 64%, while polled a respectable 35%, but during his re-election in 1992, Jewish support dropped to just 11%, with 80%, voting for and 9% going to independent.
In the78% of Jews voted forwho became the first to be elected president.
Additionally, 83% of white Jews voted for Obama compared to just 34% of white Protestants and 47% of white Catholics, though 67% to all atlantis inclusive those identifying with another religion and 71% identifying with no religion also voted Obama.
As American Jews have progressed economically over time, some commentators have wondered why Jews remain so firmly Democratic and have not shifted political allegiances to the center or right in the way other groups mest all downloaded Casino have advanced economically, such as Hispanics and Arab-Americans, have.
This is down one from the last Congress was defeated in his primary; in his general; and was newly elected.
In two states, both Senators are Jewish: Lieberman and Blumenthal and California Feinstein and Boxer.
Prior to the defeat of in the 2010 elections, Wisconsin also had two Jewish Senators Kohl and Feingold.
There were 27 Jews among the 435 U.
Representatives at the start of the 112th Congress; 26 Democrats and one Republican.
While many of these Members represented coastal cities and suburbs with significant Jewish populations, others did not for instance, of Tucson, Arizona; of Louisville, Kentucky; of Boulder, Colorado; and of Memphis, Tennessee.
The total number of Jews serving in the House of Representatives declined from 31 in the 111th Congress.
The number declined when, and resigned during the 112th Congress.
The only three openly gay men serving in Congress are all Jewish: of Massachusetts; of Colorado; and of Rhode Island.
In November 2008, Cantor was elected as thethe first Jewish Republican to be selected for the position.
In 2011, he became the.
Participation in civil rights movements As a group, American Jews have been very active in fighting prejudice and discrimination, and have historically been active participants in movements.
In the mid-20th century, American Jews were among the most active participants and supporters visit web page the.
Contemporaneously, wrote her 1963 bookwhich is sometimes credited with sparking theand was the first of many prominent American Jewish feminists which extended into the.
American Jews have also since its founding been largely supportive of and active figures in the struggle for.
During the Middle Ages my people http://cardscasinoallin.top/all/who-is-the-fairest-of-all.html for a thousand years in the ghettos of Europe… It is for these reasons that it is not merely sympathy and compassion for the black people of America that motivates us.
It is, above all and beyond all such sympathies and emotions, a sense of complete identification and solidarity born of our own painful historic experience.
Most Jews from Eastern Europe favored Zionism, which saw a return to their historical homeland as the only solution; this had the effect of diverting attention from the horrors in Nazi Germany.
German Jews were alarmed at the Nazis but were disdainful of Zionism.
Proponents of a Jewish state and Jewish army agitated, but many leaders were so fearful of an antisemitic backlash inside the U.
One important development was the sudden conversion of most but not all Jewish leaders to Zionism late in the war.
Reporters and editors largely did not believe the atrocity stories coming out of Europe.
The Holocaust had a profound impact on the community in the United States, especially after 1960, as Jews tried to comprehend what had happened, and especially to commemorate and grapple with it when looking to the future.
Political became a well-organized movement in the U.
Jewish Americans organized large-scale boycotts of German merchandise during the 1930s, to protest the.
Support for political Zionism in this period, although growing in influence, remained a distinctly minority opinion among German Jews until about 1944—45, when the early rumors and reports of the systematic mass murder of the Jews in became publically known with the liberation of the and.
The founding of in 1948 made the Middle East a center of attention; the immediate recognition of Israel by the American government was an indication of both its intrinsic here and the influence of political Zionism.
This attention initially was based on a natural and religious affinity toward and support for Israel and world Jewry.
The attention is also because of the ensuing and unresolved conflicts regarding the founding Israel and Zionism itself.
A lively internal debate commenced, following the.
The American Jewish community was divided over whether or not they agreed with the Israeli response; the great majority came to accept the war as necessary.
A tension existed especially for some Jews on the left who saw Israel as too anti-Soviet and anti-Palestinian.
Similar tensions were aroused by the 1977 election of Begin and the rise of policies, the and the continuing occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
Abandoning any pretense of unity, both segments began to develop separate advocacy and lobbying organizations.
The liberal supporters of the Oslo Accord worked through Americans for Peace Now APNIsrael Policy Forum IPF and other live all jackpots chat casino friendly to the Labour government in Israel.
They tried to assure Congress that American Jewry was behind the Accord and defended the efforts of the administration to help the fledgling Palestinian authority PA including promises of financial aid.
In a battle for public opinion, IPF commissioned a number of polls showing widespread support for Oslo among the community.
In opposition to Oslo, an alliance of Orthodox groups, such as ZOA, Americans For a Safe Israel AFSIand the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs JINSA launched a major public opinion campaign.
Hard-core Zionists also criticized, often in harsh language, Prime Minister Rabin and Shimon Perez, his foreign minister and chief architect of the peace accord.
With the community so strongly divided, AIPAC and the Presidents Conference, which was tasked with representing the national Jewish consensus, struggled to keep the increasingly shrill discourse civil.
The Conference, which under its organizational guidelines was in charge of moderating communal discourse, reluctantly this web page some Orthodox spokespeople for attacking Colette Avital, the labor-appointed Israel Council General in New York and an ardent supporter of the peace process.
Demographics Percentage of Jewish population in the United States, 2000.
The Jewish population of the United States is either the largest in the world, or second to that of Israel, depending on the sources and methods used to measure it.
Precise population figures vary depending on whether Jews are accounted for based on considerations, or secular, and factors.
There were about 4 million adherents of Judaism in the U.
The community self-identifying as Jewish by birth, irrespective of halakhic unbroken maternal line of Jewish descent or formal Jewish conversion status, numbers about 7 million, or 2.
According to thefor the year 2007 Israel is home to 5.
The most recent large scale population survey, released in the 2006 American Jewish Yearbook population survey estimates place the number of American Jews at 6.
This figure is significantly higher than the previous large scale survey estimate, conducted by the 2000—2001 National Jewish Population estimates, which estimated 5.
A 2007 source released by the SSRI at presents evidence to suggest that both of these figures may be underestimations with a potential 7.
Jews in the U.
The Ashkenazi Jews, who are now the vast majority of American Jews, settled first in the Northeast and Midwest cities, but in recent decades increasingly in the South and West.
The of 1990 asked 4.
Metropolitan areas with largest Jewish populations Rank Rank ARDA Metro area Number of Jews WJC Number of Jews ASARB 1 1 1,750,000 2,028,200 2 3 535,000 337,000 3 2 490,000 662,450 4 4 254,000 285,950 5 6 248,000 265,400 6 8 210,000 218,700 7 7 208,000 261,100 8 5 165,000 276,445 States with the highest proportion of Jews Rank State Percent Jewish 1 9.
Several other major cities have large Jewish communities, including, and.
In many metropolitan areas, the majority of Jewish families live in suburban areas.
The area was home to about 83,000 Jews in 2002, and has been rapidly growing.
The greatest Jewish population on a per-capita basis for incorporated areas in the U.
The phenomenon of Israeli migration to the U.
The is less widespread.
The significant Israeli immigrant communities in the United States are in Los Angeles, New York City, Miami, and Chicago.
According to the of the4.
Distribution of Jewish Americans According to the North American Jewish Data Bank the 100 counties and as of 2011 with the largest Jewish communities, based by percentage of total population, were: County Jewish population % of total 1 91,300 31.
More recently however, the propriety and degree of has also become a significant and controversial issue within the modern American Jewish community, with both and religious skeptics.
While not all Jews disapprove ofmany members of the Jewish community have become concerned that the high rate of interfaith marriage will result in the eventual disappearance of the American Jewish community.
Intermarriage rates have risen from roughly 6% in 1950 to approximately 40—50% in the year 2000.
This, in combination with the comparatively low birthrate in the Jewish community, has led to a 5% decline in the Jewish population of the United States in the 1990s.
In addition to this, when compared with the general American population, the American Jewish community is slightly older.
Despite the fact that only 33% of intermarried couples provide their children with a Jewish upbringing, doing so is more common among intermarried families raising their children in areas with high Jewish populations.
The Boston area, for example, is exceptional in that an estimated 60% percent of children of intermarriages are being raised Jewish, meaning that intermarriage would actually be contributing to a net increase in the number of Jews.
As well, some children raised through intermarriage when they themselves marry and have children.
In contrast to the ongoing trends of assimilation, some communities within American Jewry, such ashave significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly.
The proportion of Jewish synagogue members who were Orthodox rose from 11% in 1971 to 21% in 2000, while the overall Jewish community declined in number.
The figure for 2006 is estimated at 468,000 9.
About half of the American Jews are considered to be religious.
Out of this 2,831,000 religious Jewish population, 92% are non-Hispanic white, 5% Hispanic of any race Most commonly from Argentina, Venezuela, or Cuba; many are Hispanics who converted after finding out they are descendants of Jews forced to convert to Roman Catholicism during the Spanish Inquisition.
See1% Asian Mostly Bukharian and Persian Jews1% Black and 1% Other Mixed Race.
Almost this many non-religious Jews exist in United States, the proportion of Whites being higher than that among the religious population.
American Jews and race Approximately 7.
African American Jews and other American Jews of African descent Main articles:, and The American Jewish community includes African American Jews and other American such as Americanexcluding North African Jewish Americans, who are considered or and are thus classified as.
Estimates of the number of American Jews of African descent in the United States range from 20,000 to 200,000.
Jews of African descent belong to all of American.
Like their white Jewish counterparts, some black Jews are or.
Relations between American Jews of African descent and other Jewish Americans are generally cordial.
There are, however, some tensions with a specific minority among African-Americans who consider themselves, but not other Jews, to be the true descendants of the of the.
They are generally not considered to be members of the mainstream Jewish community, since they have not formally converted to Judaism, nor are they ethnically related to other Jews.
One such group, theemigrated to Israel and was granted status there.
Notable African-American Jews include, and rabbis and.
And while 27% of Americans have had college orfifty-nine percent 66% of of American Jews have, the second highest of any religious group after.
While 46% of Americans work in jobs, 61% of American Jews work as professionals, many of whom are highly educated, salaried professionals whose work is largely self-directed in such as engineering, science, medicine, investment banking, finance, law, and academia.
Either of these two statistics may be by the list of all us states that the Jewish population is on average older than other religious groups in the country, with 51% of polled adults over the age of 50 compared to 41% nationally.
Older people tend to both and be more highly educated.
According to analysis byAmerican Jews have the highest of any ethnic or religious group in America.
The great majority of school-age Jewish students attend public schools, although Jewish day schools and yeshivas are to be found throughout the country.
From the early 1900s until the 1950s, were imposed at elite colleges and universities particularly in the Northeast, as a response to the growing number of children of recent Jewish immigrants; these limited the number of Jewish students accepted, and greatly reduced their previous attendance.
Before 1945, only a few Jewish professors were permitted as instructors at elite universities.
In 1941, for example, antisemitism drove from a non-tenured assistant professorship at the.
Harvard hired its first Jewish biochemists in 1954.
Today, American Jews no longer face the discrimination in higher education that they did in the past, particularly in the.
For example, by 1986, a third of the presidents of the elite undergraduate at Harvard were Jewish.
Concentration of American Jews at various American higher education institutions Rank University Enrollment for Jewish Students list of all us states />Religion Jewishness in the United States is considered an as well as a religious one.
Observances and engagement Jewish religious practice in America is quite varied.
A 2003 found that 16% of American Jews go to the synagogue at least once a month, 42% go less frequently but at least once a year, and 42% go less frequently than once a year.
The survey found that of the 4.
Among those households who belong to a synagogue, 38% are members of synagogues, 33%22%2%and 5% other types.
Traditionally, and do not have different branches Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, etc.
The survey discovered that Jews in the and are generally more observant than Jews in the South or West.
Reflecting a trend also observed among other religious groups, Jews in the Northwestern United States are typically the least observant.
In recent years, there has been a noticeable trend of secular American Jews returning to a more observant, in most cases, Orthodox, lifestyle.
It is uncertain how widespread or demographically important this movement is at present.
The number of Jews who identify themselves as only culturally Jewish has risen from 20% in 1990 to 37% in 2008, according to the study.
In the same period, the number of all US adults who said they had no religion rose from 8% to 15%.
Jews are more likely to be secular than Americans in general, the researchers said.
About one-sixth of American Jews maintain dietary standards.
Religious beliefs American Jews are more likely to be atheist or agnostic than most Americans, especially so compared with Protestants or Catholics.
A 2003 poll found that while 79% of Americans believe in God, only 48% of American Jews do, compared with 79% and 90% for Catholics and Protestants respectively.
And though 9% of Americans believe there is no God 8% Catholic and 4% Protestant19% of American Jews believe God does not exist.
Though are varied, most schools of Jewish thought have reconciled Judaism with evolution.
A 2009 Harris Poll showed American Jews as the religious group most accepting ofwith 80% believing in evolution, compared to 51% for Catholics, 32% for Protestants, and 16% of Born-again Christians.
They were also less likely to believe in supernatural phenomena such as miracles, angels, or heaven.
Buddhism Main article: Jews are overrepresented inwith between one fifth and 30% of all American Buddhists identifying as Jewish though only.
Nicknamed Jubus, an increasing number of American Jews have begun adopting Buddhist spiritual practice, while at the same time continuing to identify with and practice Judaism.
Notable American Jewish Buddhists include:and all bingo numbers, and.
Owing to high Democratic identification in the78% of Jews voted for Democrat versus 21% for Republicandespite Republican attempts to connect Obama to Muslim and pro-Palestinian causes.
In the69% of Jews voted for the Democratic incumbent President Obama.
A paper by Dr.
Among those voters, 55% voted for Kerry compared to 83% of Jewish voters not concerned with Israel.
A New York Times article suggests that the Jewish movement to the Republican party is focused heavily on faith-based issues, similar to the Catholic vote, which is credited for helping President Bush taking Florida in 2004.
Though critics have charged that Jewish interests were partially responsible for the push to war with Iraq, Jewish Americans were actually more strongly opposed to the from its onset than any other major religious group or even most Americans.
The greater opposition to the war was not simply a result of high Democratic identification among U.
Jews, as Jews of all political persuasions were more likely to oppose the war than non-Jews who shared the same political leanings.
A split on homosexuality exists by level of observance.
Reform, and, increasingly,Jews are far more supportive on issues like gay marriage than are.
A 2007 survey of Conservative Jewish leaders and activists showed that an overwhelming majority supported gay rabbinical ordination and same-sex marriage.
Accordingly, 78% percent of Jewish voters rejectedthe bill that banned gay marriage in California.
No other ethnic or religious group voted as strongly against it.
In considering the trade-off between the economy and environmental protection, American Jews were significantly more likely than other religious groups excepting Buddhism to favor stronger environmental protection.
Jews in America also overwhelmingly oppose current United States marijuana policy.
Eighty-six percent of Jewish Americans opposed arresting nonviolent marijuana smokers, compared to 61% for the population at large and 68% of all Democrats.
Additionally, 85% of Jews in the United States opposed using federal law enforcement to close patient cooperatives for medical marijuana in states where medical marijuana is legal, compared to 67% of the population at large and 73% of Democrats.
Jewish American culture See also: Since the time of the last major wave of Jewish immigration to America over 2,000,000 Jews from Eastern Europe who arrived between 1890 and 1924Jewish secular culture in the United States has become integrated in almost every important way with the broader American culture.
Many aspects of Jewish American culture have, in turn, become part of the wider culture of the United States.
Language Jewish languages in the US Year Hebrew Yiddish 1910 — 1,051,767 1920 — 1,091,820 1930 — 1,222,658 1940 — 924,440 1960 38,346 503,605 1970 36,112 438,116 1980 315,953 1990 144,292 213,064 2000 195,374 178,945 Foreign-born population only Most American Jews today are native.
Yiddish was once spoken as the primary language by most of the several million Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated to the United States.
It was, in fact, the original language in which was published.
The community in the United States, notably the large community in and around Los Angeles andprimarily speak see also in the home and synagogue.
They also support their own Persian language newspapers.
Persian Jews also reside in eastern parts of New York such as and.
Many recent Jewish immigrants from the speak primarily Russian at home, and there are several notable communities where public life and business are carried out mainly in Russian, such as in in New York City and in Miami.
Another high population of Russian Jews can be found in the of San Francisco where Russian markets stand alongside the numerous Asian businesses.
A typical poster-hung wall in JewishNew York American speaka dialect of Persian, and Russian.
They publish their own newspapers such as the Bukharian Times and a large portion live inNew York.
Many Bukharians are also represented in parts ofMiami, Florida, and areas of such as San Diego.
Some recent Israeli immigrants to America speak Hebrew as their primary language.
Some Jews, particularly in Miami and Los Angeles, immigrated from Latin America.
Many of thesemany of them of origin dating back to the Spanish colonial era, but also some from descent from recent Central and Eastern European immigration to Latin America, speak Spanish in the home, and some have intermarried with the non-Jewish population.
Recent Jews from Spain speak Spanish, and Spanish may be spoken by other Jews with ancestry outside Spain and Latin America, but who live in areas near predominantly Hispanic populations.
There is a large number of synagogues in the Miami area that give services in Spanish.
Also in Miami and Los Angeles there are many Luso-Jews with origin from and.
Sephardic, Ashkenazi, and Mizrahi Jews from Brazil often speak at home.
There are also a handful of older European immigrant communities that still speak.
Jewish American literature Main article: Although American Jews have contributed greatly to American arts overall, there remains a distinctly Jewish American literature.
Jewish American literature often explores the experience of being a Jew in America, and the conflicting pulls of secular society and history.
Popular culture Main articles:,, and Many individual Jews have made significant contributions to American popular culture.
There have been many Jewish American actors and performers, ranging from early 1900s actors, to classic Hollywood film stars, and culminating in many currently known actors.
Many of the early Hollywood moguls and pioneers were Jewish.
The field of American comedy includes many Jews.
The legacy also includes songwriters and authors.
Jews have also done well in the field of sport.
Government and military See also: Since 1845, a total of 34 Jews have served in the Senate, including the 14 present-day senators noted.
The number of Jews elected to the House rose to an all-time high of 30.
Jews have been appointed to the.
At least twenty eight American Jews have been awarded the.
World War II More than 550,000 Jews served in the during ; about 11,000 were killed and more than 40,000 were wounded.
There were three recipients of the Medal of Honor, 157 recipients of the,orand about 1600 recipients of the.
About 50,000 other decorations.
During this period, Jews were approximately 3.
About 60 percent of all Jewish physicians in the United States under 45 years of age were in service as military physicians and.
Many Jewishincluding project leadwere involved in thethe secret World War II effort to develop the.
Many of these were refugees from or from persecution elsewhere in Europe.
American folk music Jews have been involved in the American folk music scene since the late 19th century; these tended to be refugees from Central and Eastern Europe, and significantly more economically disadvantaged than their established Western European and Sephardic coreligionists.
Historians see it as a legacy of the secular Yiddish theater, cantorial traditions and a desire to assimilate.
By the 1940s Jews had become established in the American folk music scene.
Guthrie married a and their son Arlo became influential in his own right.
Three of the four creators of theWein, Bikell and Grossman Seeger konami code games not were Jewish.
Albert Grossman put togetherof which Yarrow is Jewish.
And is the first American broadcast where the host himself will answer any personal correspondence.
Influential groupsuccessor to the Almanac Singers, lead by Pete Seeger, had a Jewish manager, and 2 of the 4 members of the group were Jewish Gilbert and Hellerman.
Izzy Young who created the legendary Folklore Center in NY, and currently the Folklore Centrum near Mariatorget in Södermalm, Sweden, which relates to American and Swedish folk music.
Finance Jews have been involved in both financial thought from many diverting perspectives, and practical investment in the U.
During the colonial era, before the establishment of the U.
Jews were the first non-Protestants to receive rights to trade fur, from the Dutch and Swedish controlled colonies.
The colonial United Kingdom honored after transitioning control of the colonies.
American Jews in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries played a major role in American finance, both at investment banks and investment funds.
German Jewish bankers began to assume a major role in American finance in the 1830s when government and private borrowing to pay for canals, railroads and other increased rapidly and significantly.
As was true of their non-Jewish counterparts, family, personal, and business connections, a reputation for honesty and integrity, ability, and a willingness to take calculated risks were essential to recruit capital from widely scattered sources.
The families and the firms which they controlled were bound together by religious and social factors, and by the prevalence of intermarriage.
These personal ties fulfilled real business functions before the advent of institutional organization in the 20th century.
Nevertheless, antisemitic elements often falsely targeted them as key players in a supposed Jewish cabal conspiring to dominate the world.
Since the late 20th century list of all us states Jews played a major role in the hedge fund industry, according to Zuckerman 2009 Thus,and are large hedge all poker games download cofounded by Jews.
They have also played a pivotal role in the private equity industry, co-founding some of the largest firms, such as,and.
Federal Reserveone of the leading advocates of the establishment of a in the U.
Since then, several Jews have served as of the Fed, includingthe current Chairman, andthe prior chairman.
Science, business, and academia Main articles:, and Jews have traditionally been drawn to business and academia see for some of the causesand have made major contributions in science, economics, and the humanities.
Of American Nobel Prize winners, 37 percent have been Jewish Americans 18 times the percentage of Jews in the populationas have been 65 percent of the winners thirty-one times the Jewish percentage.
While Jewish Americans only constitute roughly 2.
Ellison was fifth on the Forbes 2018 list of world billionaires.
He appeared 13th on the world list.
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